Also, if there were 100,000 stone
haulers as Herodotus reports, then we would have to
incorporate several thousand more workers because stone
hauling is just one facet of the work load. Thus in
proportion there would have to be 100,000 quarrymen, 100,000
men pulling the stones to the barges, 200,000 sailors
rafting the full and empty barges up and down the Nile,
another 200,000 loading and unloading at both ends, 100,000
men building and repairing barges, sleds, ropes, etc. etc.
This list would be endless...
...Ingenious masonry work was
exhibited in the pyramids, especially the Great Pyramid.
When archaeologists removed one of the few remaining casing
stones, (the stone that at one time covered the entire
pyramid) on the north side of the pyramid at its base they
were shocked at what they discovered. None of the underlying
blocks examined had chipped edges, cracks, or even
scratches: they were perfect! In reference to the casing
stones, one of the world's greatest Egyptologists, Flinders
Petrie, found that the faces and butting surfaces of these
16 ton blocks were cut to 1/100 of an inch of mathematical
perfection."
*****************************************************
But,
here's another idea!
by Roumen V.
Mladjov and Ian R. Mladjov
The Great Pyramid of Giza was built of 2.3 million
individual stone blocks. Each weighed nearly three metric
tons, and each was raised to heights of up to 147 meters
(482 feet). This mind-boggling feat was completed in less
than 23 years – the reign of King Khufu of Egypt. Just how
such a construction project was accomplished 4,600 years ago
has bedeviled Egyptologists for centuries. But a clue may
lie in an inscription carved into some of the massive
pyramid blocks. It says simply: THIS SIDE UP.
Why would ancient builders inscribe such a note on a rock
that would simply be dragged up a ramp? Orientation should
not have been a problem: Such heavy, rectangular blocks were
unlikely ever to be tipped upside down.
This curious inscription makes sense only if we reject the
popular hypothesis that huge gangs of men dragged the blocks
up temporary ramps. We propose, instead, that the
rectangular blocks were literally rolled up the ramps and
onto the growing pyramid.
The builders faced
the daunting task of placing, let's say, 1.85 million
blocks. Based on our assumptions, that works out to an
average speed of 1.4 kilometers (.86 miles) per hour –
still impossible to achieve by dragging.
But rolling a three-metric ton stone would require just
one-fourth the force needed to drag it, so that speed could
be maintained. And work crews could be reduced to 12 to 15
people, so more teams could work simultaneously atop the
ramps.
Engineering
computations show that the force necessary to drag a typical
three-ton stone block mounted on a sled is 1.35 tons. Build
a wheel around the same block and roll it up the same slope
and the required force falls to just 0.3 tons.
******************************************
Casing at the top of Khafre's Pyramid
If you have any
more relevant, studied insights to add
to this page, please submit your thoughts to
Dr.
Freeman
Great
Pyramid of Cheops (Khufu)
Built: c.2589-2566BC.
Height: 481'.
Base: 775 3/4' each side.
Incline: 51 degrees 50'.
Average stone weights: core two-and-a-half tons, facings
four tons.
Required 112 men to lift.
Construction material: limestone, basalt and granite.
Excavation/restoration: surveyed in early 1800s by Richard
Howard-Vyse, John Perring and Giovanni Caviglia.
Notes: built from 2,300,000 blocks covering 13 acres and
requiring the equivalent of 200 million man-loads (80 lbs),
or 6,500,000 tons of material. The casing stones (when
intact) covered a surface of 22 acres.
*******************************************
Pyramid of Chephren (Khafre)
Built: c.2558-2532BC.
Height: 471' (original).
Base: 707 3/4' each side.
Incline: 53 degrees 8'.
Average stone weights: core two to three tons, facings six
tons.
Construction material: limestone and red granite.
Excavation/restoration: extensively explored in 1818 by the
Italian explorer Giovanni Belzoni. Surveyed shortly after by
Richard Howard-Vyse, John Perring & Giovanni Caviglia.
******************************************
Pyramid of Mycerinus (Menkaure)
Built: c. 2532-2504BC
Height: 218'.
Base: 356 1/2'.
Incline: 51 degrees.
Average stone weights: N/A.
Construction material: limestone and red granite.
Excavation/restoration: surveyed in early 1800s by Richard
Howard-Vyse,
John Perring and Giovanni Caviglia. |